양평출장샵┭24시출장샵✡양평민락동 마사지﹝양평임파선 마사지﹞↺<양평여인숙 여자>◘양평울산 명촌 안마방✉양평여주 안마방┭양평헬로 마사지✉양평양배추 안마방♩양평문정동 마사지

As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

카지노사이트
French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

양평출장샵✔예약금없는출장샵☵양평민락동 마사지﹝양평순천 타이 마사지﹞➺<양평눈 마사지>0양평두정동 마사지▌양평안마방 시스템•양평태국 안마방♪ 양평전립선 마사지 tumblr﹄양평하복대 안마방

The governments of more than 190 nations 서귀포안마방 미러 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

양평출장샵☴예약♮양평민락동 마사지﹝양평출장샵 예약금﹞⇂<양평마사지 초대>ニ양평안마방 카드▫양평토렌트 안마방㍿양평연수동 안마방的양평스웨디시 마사지 단점┖양평24시 마사지

Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

양평출장샵◊예약➢양평민락동 마사지﹝양평일산 타이 마사지﹞┌<양평세부 마사지 엑스트라>セ양평천안 퇴폐♬양평안산 마사지┯양평마사지 카드 단속☎양평외국인 안마방×양평해수욕 마사지

Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 울산출장샵 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

양평출장샵═출장부르는법┱양평민락동 마사지﹝양평사이판 마사지﹞♪<양평에로틱 마사지>.양평홍성 안마방★양평광양 안마방♀양평양산 마사지♠양평자궁 마사지❀양평부산역 안마방

They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 성남아로마마사지 팁 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

양평출장샵0출장부르는법▐양평민락동 마사지﹝양평대전 마사지 추천﹞◐<양평다낭 붐붐 마사지>♕양평남순 마사지⇆양평출장마사지█양평시흥 마사지═양평유재석 안마방◄양평여성전용 안마방

No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 카지노사이트 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

양평출장샵양평유흥인 토렌트

  • 성남전완근 마사지
  • 양평하단 안마방
  • 양평출장샵
  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    양평출장샵╜예약금없는출장샵♬양평민락동 마사지﹝양평마사지 영상﹞╁<양평수유역 마사지>∷양평구미 여관✄양평안마방 아쿠아◐양평구로 마사지╃양평김천 안마방▌양평타이 마사지 토렌트

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 군산원주 마사지 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 진주출장샵 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    okbari.xyz
    의왕구리 안마방 서울출장안마 창원합성동 안마방
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 대전출장샵 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    양평출장샵☪예약금없는출장샵┢양평민락동 마사지﹝양평아내 마사지﹞↜<양평마사지 모음>モ양평충주 안마방✕양평tumblr 안마방☆양평안마방 대물─양평나주 마사지◇양평대전 마사지 후기

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 진주최음제 마사지 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    양평출장샵↺예약금없는출장샵☺양평민락동 마사지﹝양평스웨디시 마사지﹞♧<양평스웨 디시 마사지 란>╫양평태국 마사지 종류⇃양평안마방 스탭⇁양평마사지 마무리﹄양평안마방 통화기록◑양평마사지 ㅅㅅ

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 진주출장샵 .

    사천안구 마사지
    동해불광동 마사지 군산출장샵 서귀포흑인 마사지
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    양평출장샵✈예약금없는출장샵✄양평민락동 마사지﹝양평마사지 효능﹞✖<양평전주 마사지 클럽>➷양평관자놀이 마사지⇞양평사이판 마사지➻양평전립선 마사지 느낌♗양평오사카 마사지┌양평콜걸

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. dkevent.xyz .

    양평출장샵╘예약금없는출장샵╨양평민락동 마사지﹝양평출장외국인﹞➳<양평허리통증 마사지>☆양평세부 마사지 엑스트라╰양평안마방 fc2×양평출장마사지❦양평타이페이 마사지➽양평안마방 물다이 몰카

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And 카지노사이트 .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 의령출장샵예약 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    양평출장샵◈예약금없는출장샵コ양평민락동 마사지﹝양평안산 조건 만남﹞⇪<양평모유 마사지>┗양평익산 마사지⇃양평안마방 태국녀ο양평미시 마사지ⓛ양평출장오쓰피걸☣양평출장오쓰피걸

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    양평출장샵◦예약금없는출장샵➼양평민락동 마사지﹝양평안마방 출근부﹞♞<양평출장>ⓞ양평안마도♭양평둔산동 엘 마사지➥양평안마방 수입ソ양평태국 마사지 후기✏양평마사지 구인

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 천안산본 마사지 후기 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The lovejg.xyz , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 대전출장샵 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 사천안마방 터치 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that 서울출장안마 . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    양평출장샵↘예약금없는출장샵⇃양평민락동 마사지﹝양평안마방 전화﹞➽<양평응암동 마사지>╙양평복부 마사지┢양평안마방 얼굴⇇양평일본 오일 마사지☵양평커플 마사지 후기☼양평얼굴 마사지

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, 제주출장안마 , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 온라인카지노 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and jasonboy.xyz showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    양평출장샵⊙24시출장샵▦양평민락동 마사지﹝양평서울 출장 마사지﹞↾<양평kcm 안마방>☆양평푸켓 크리스틴 러브 마사지╃양평안양 안마방⇍양평안동 안마방║양평안마방 검색φ양평분당 마사지

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    통영러브젤 마사지
    대구출장안마 충청북도괌 마사지 카지노사이트
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    양평출장샵✥출장부르는법◐양평민락동 마사지﹝양평안마방 영상﹞⇔<양평서현 안마방>↚양평경찰 안마방✏양평태국 마사지 야동╯양평안마방 터치➻양평신촌 안마방ε양평화곡 마사지

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.양평출장샵양평검단 마사지♨양평부평 마사지 샵ノ<양평20대 안마방>양평24시간 마사지◣양평판교 마사지チ양평쿠알라룸푸르 마사지┪양평탄트라 마사지◐전주출장샵24시출장샵양평마사지 전단지⇃양평마곡 마사지⇇(양평베트남 다낭 마사지)양평일본 마사지 av○양평신흥 안마방θ양평대구 콜ο양평해피 출장×양평출장샵함안대딸양평가산 안마방☀양평카톡 조건☈(양평까치산 안마방)양평전국 안마방¤양평출장샵예약┳양평연산 안마방▀양평장 마사지➵양평김해 출장 마사지◐양평강남역 안마방╁<양평칠곡3지구 마사지>양평양재역 안마방►양평괌 마사지✂양평온천장 안마방▲양평안마방 수면♪양평안마방 torrent►양평마사지 썰◎『양평남순 마사지』양평모텔 부산▷양평야탑 안마방▷양평아주동 마사지♜양평안마방 엉덩이»양평제주도 안마방 추천▀양평강릉 여관✌『양평티켓 썰』양평안마방 얼굴☁양평영통 안마방囍양평선릉 마사지♨양평옥계 마사지◦출장부르는법증평에스코트 모델예약금없는출장샵양평구리 안마방☼양평대림동 마사지↼「양평동탄 마사지」양평누들누 드☇양평영통 마사지 ㅁㅁㄹφ양평안마방 마무리┌양평부산 서면 출장♐양평출장샵양평출장샵천안출장샵양평마사지 도구양평라오스 마사지 2차양평양재역 안마방양평마사지 분수양평출장샵양평출장 안마▨양평야탑 마사지⇪〔양평카오산로드 마사지〕양평다리 마사지⇖양평강남구청 안마방▥양평동남아 안마방☭양평진주 가격♕나주거유 마사지

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

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